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General frequently asked questions about Storage & Media.

8. What does "buffer underrun" mean? 

The CD writing process can't be interrupted in mid-session. To prevent this from happening, the makers of CD recorders put a write buffer in the drive, usually 1MB or 2MB. Data read from the hard drive, tape, or another CD is stored in the buffer, and pulled out as needed by the recorder.

If the recorder requests data from the write buffer, but there's none there, it's called a buffer underrun. The disc is still spinning, but there's no data to write, so the recording process aborts.

Some advices for preventing buffer underruns are:

Use a faster computer
Record at a slow speed
- It takes longer to empty the buffer
Don't do anything else with the computer while recording.

Don't record on a file server!
Defragment your Hard Disk
Depending on your setup, putting the recorder and your hard drive on separate SCSI controllers may be necessary
Turn off the screen save

9. What is CD-R? 

CD-R is short for "CD Recordable". Recordable CDs are Write Once, Read Multiple media that work just like standard CDs. The advantage of CD-R over other types of optical media is that you can use the discs with a standard CD player.

10. What is DVD+R and DVD+RW? 
DVD+R is a non-rewritable format and it is compatible with about 89% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs. DVD+RW is a rewritable format and is compatible with about 79% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs. DVD+R and DVD+RW supports single side 4.7 GB DVDs (called DVD-5) and double side 9.4 GB DVDs (called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by the DVD+RW Alliance

11. What is DVD+R DL (dual layer)? 

DVD+R DL or called DVD+R9 is a Dual Layer writeable DVD+R. The dual layered discs can hold 8.54 GB (called DVD-9) and dual layered double sides 17.08 GB (called dvd-18).

12. What is DVD-R and DVD-RW? 
DVD-R was the first DVD recording format released that was compatible with standalone DVD Players. DVD-R is a non-rewriteable format and it is compatible with about 93% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs. DVD-RW is a rewriteable format and it is compatible with about 80% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs. DVD-R and DVD-RW supports single side 4.7GB DVDs (called DVD-5) and double sided 9.4 GB DVDs (called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by DVDForu

13. What is DVD-RAM? 

DVD-RAM has the best recording features but it is not compatible with most DVD-ROM drives and DVD-Video players. Think more of it as a removable hard disk. DVD-RAM is usually used in some DVD Recorders.
This format is supported by DVDForum.

14. What is ISO-9660 Standard?   
Level 1 ISO-9660
This defines names to be the familiar 8+3 convention that MS-DOS users have suffered through for many years: eight characters for the name, a period ("full stop" for those of you in the U.K.), followed by three characters for the file type, all in upper case. Many special characters (space, hyphen, tilde, equals, and plus) are forbidden. There's also a file version number, separated from the name by a semicolon, but it's often ignored.
Level 2 ISO-9660
It allows longer filenames and deeper directory structures (32 levels instead of 8), but isn't usable on some systems, e.g. MS-DOS.

15. What is Joliet? 

Joliet is an extension of the ISO 9660 standard, developed by Microsoft to allow CDs to be recorded using long filenames, and using the Unicode international character set. Joliet allows you to use filenames up to 64 characters in length, including spaces. Joliet also records the associated DOS-standard name for each file so that the disc may be read on DOS systems or earlier versions of Windows.

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